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-The Church’s political power started being challenged .
- Unwillingness to depend on the Church and rejection of the constraints it enforced .
- Growing human confidence vs. “original sin” .
-Catholic church becomes defensive and unable to respond to the criticism .
- The confusing nature of scholasticism and of church dogma .
-Spain’s exploration and colonization were led by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus. in 1492, Columbus reached the Caribbean Islands. His aim was to find a new route to Asia . Accidentally found America while looking for a westward route to Asia . His voyages considered a turning point in history . - Portugal led the way. A land of experienced sailors who had traveled the seas in search of trade for centuries. Portuguese monarchs like Prince Henry the Navigator understood their country’s dependence on the sea and eagerly finance exploration ventures.
-During the Middle Ages in Western Europe, Latin was the language of the Church and the educated people. Humanists began to use the vernacular, and helped develop the national languages of their countries – Italian, French, English, German.- Humanists also had a great impact on education. They supported studying grammar, poetry, and history, as well as mathematics, astronomy, and music. They promoted the concept of the well-rounded individual (Renaissance man) who was proficient in both intellectual and physical endeavors.
-Renaissance writings on other peoples and cultures were based on stereotypes and vacillated between fascination, fear and repulsion . - Often those who were seen as foreign or different were demonized, especially true for Jews and Muslims . - Catholic countries like France and Italy are represented in English literature in contradictory ways . - Both countries were admired for their literature, but…The French are portrayed as fickle, vain and untrustworthy - Italians are caricatured as deviant, corrupt, vengeful and lecherous.- The Spaniards are often portrayed as hot-blooded religious extremists . - By contrast, the representation of the Dutch and Germans (fellow Protestants) is generally benign, though comical: Dutch characters often have funny accents and Germans are often presented as hard drinkers.
The sonnet is a short poem usually emotional in content. The form was first developed in Italy during the High Middle Ages by well-known figures like Dante Alighieri putting it to use. But the most famous sonneteer of that time was Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374), and it is after him that the Italian sonnet got its name. The sonnet can be thematically divided into two sections:1-The first presents theme or raises an issue.2. The second part answers the question, resolves the problem, or drives home the poem's point. This change in the poem is called the turn and moves the emotional action of the poem from a climax to a resolution.
The main themes of this poem are milons exploration of his felling of fear , limitation,light and darkness, duty andisdoubt, regarding his failed sight , his rationalization of this anxiety by seeking solution in his faith-
The characteristics of a sonnet are its rhyme scheme, its metric structure, its common topics, and its specific cultural conventions. This type of poem traditionally has a strict number of lines with ending words that must rhyme according to a certain formula. These literature rules determine whether a piece of poetry is classified as a sonnet rather than as another type of poetry such as blank verse. Sonnets also have a few variations according to their authors' backgrounds, but these structural differences still need to fall within specific parameters. Language scholars generally believe that this kind of written verse originated from an Italian form of poetry called the sonetto that was recited to musical accompaniment, which accounts for this type of poetry's uniform rhythmic characteristics
جهد الاخوان" ^Nasser^ " "شعنونه" "عبوررر"— قام بجمعه روى نجد
Shakespeare portrays Macbeth's mental deterioration, Over the course of Shakespeare's Jacobean play Macbeth; Macbeth's mind deteriorates greatly, the play showing how our thoughts and feelings can be affected by greed, temptation anxiety and guilt. Shakespeare's portrayal of Macbeth's incorporates and reflects many Jacobean beliefs about the nature of sin and the natural order of the universe, for example, the idea that anyone who committed the ultimate crime - the murder of a king - would be summoned to eternal damnation. It could be argued that Macbeth's mental deterioration stems from his refusal to live by God will. During the play Shakespeare uses soliloquies to reveal to the audience Macbeth's mental state and character. With each soliloquy, our understanding of Macbeth's mental decline becomes more detailed until, by the final scene of the play, we witness his tragic realisation of his own naivety and inability to control his fate.
In the Mid-Sixteenth Century , the English hardly existed at all as an organized commercial or artistic institution. During lifetime, Shakespeare's plays were performed on stages in private theatres, provincial theatres, and playhouses. Troupes of actors roamed the countryside, performing in courtyards or in the great halls of noble houses ,They were acted out in the yards of bawdy inns and in the great halls of the London . Little better than vagrants in the eyes of the law , Although the Globe is certainly the most well known of all the Renaissance stages associated with Shakespeare and is rightfully the primary focus of discussion, a brief introduction to some of the other Elizabethan theatres of the time provides a more complete picture of the world in which Shakespeare lived and worked. We can classify theatres into two main groups - those within the London district and those located throughout the English countryside. The theatres within the London district can be further classified as playhouses, inn yards, and private theatres. However, the stage was one of London's thriving industries, supporting at least three successful repertory companies of which one - the Lord Chamberlain's Me - boasted the services of as a resident actor, playwright, and shareholder..
this play is about how faustus puts on a performance for the Emperor and the Duke of vanholt .The Main thesis or climax of this play is when faustus two friends Valdes and cornelius who are magicians,teach him the ways of magic
Cavalier Poets is a broad de******ion of a school of English poets of the 17th century, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. The Cavalier poets' existence was because King Charles was a connoisseur of the fine arts and therefore demanded their creation, i.e. masques, poetry, and drama.These poets in turn grouped themselves with the King and his service, thus becoming Cavalier Poets. A cavalier was traditionally a mounted soldier or knight, but the term was applied differently to those who supported Charles, meaning to portray them as roistering gallants. It was meant to belittle and insult, however it became the term to which those who supported Charles was applied. They were separate in their lifestyle and divided on religion from the Round heads, who supported Parliament, consisting often of Puritans (either Presbyterians or Independents).The best known of the Cavalier poets are Ben Jonson, Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Thomas Carew, and Sir John Suckling.
Most of the Cavalier poets were courtiers, with notable exceptions. For example, Robert Herrick was not a courtier, but his style marks him as a Cavalier poet. Cavalier poetry is different from traditional poetry in its subject matter. Instead of tackling issues like religion, philosophy, and the arts, cavalier poetry aims to express the joy and simple gratification of celebratory things much livelier than the traditional works of their predecessors. The intent of their works was often to promote the crown (particularly Charles I), and cavalier poets spoke outwardly against the Round heads who supported the rebellion of Parliament against the crown. Most Cavalier works had allegorical or classical references
The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are the period of the European Renaissance. England had a strong tradition of literature in the English vernacular, which gradually increased as English use of the printing press became common by the mid 16th century. By the time of Elizabethan literature a vigorous literary culture in both drama and poetry included poets such as Edmund Spenser, it did not become a dominating influence on English literature in the way that some foreign equivalents did for their countries. Instead the lyrics of William Shakespeare, Thomas Wyatt and others, typically circulating in manu****** form for some time before they were published, and above all the plays of English Renaissance theatre, were the outstanding legacy of the period